To support their participation in the Conference, the countries of the COMIFAC had planned several activities during the year 2015. Among these activities, it was decided to publish a special report on forests and climate change in Central Africa. This report comes thus to support for the negotiations in Paris and focuses on the role of the rain forest in mitigating climate change and the impacts of these changes on the adaptation of populations and ecosystems in Central Africa.
PαC Gaia Monitor
Forest Carbon Investment Development Portfolio #1:
Corridor Project, Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa
UPDATE 08-27-2018: THIS PROJECT NOW IN-OPERATION
The project area consists of the corridor between two conserved areas, the Kahuzi-Biega National Park and the Itombwe Nature Preserve. PαC will measure CO2, CH4 and N2O flux across the diverse project areas creating new forest carbon sequestration and biodiversity products unique to the corridor. The importance of the work of Strong Roots cannot be understated as the corridor will extend the range and protection for the Grauer’s gorilla, (Gorilla beringei graueri – also known as eastern lowland gorilla), found only in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), establish land for Indigenous Peoples (Pygmy), and support numerous communities in the region. The project will result in new GHG data potentially illuminating carbon cycling dynamics for this area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Grauer’s gorilla has been listed as Critically Endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Dominique Bikaba, Founder and Executive Director of Strong Roots Congo, will consult with PαC across all activities of the project to ensure that communities and all stakeholders are informed of the project. PαC will ensure that there will be no impact on the flora, fauna and Indigenous Peoples in the project area.
- ~3 million hectares
Field Measurements and Methods:
- Network of CO2, N2O and CH4 Flux Analyzers (Half-Hour Intervals) across the project area (SoS, EC).
- Isotopic flux (QQ) for CO2 (13CO2, 12C16O18O) and CH4 (13CH4) will deployed after initial base stations have been established.
- Soil CO2 and CH4 Flux Chambers (SAC), soil gas probes (SGP), flask collection (FC), isotopic anlaysis (IA) and exsolvation (EX).
- High resolution project monitoring employing PαC drone fleet (UAS).
- Remote Sensing (RS) Commercial Services: 1) Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) for determination of standing biomass, 2) Landsat data for spectral imagery, 3) GHGsat for methane plume detection, and other available data sets of relevance.
Bisophere Box Products
The Biosphere Box products flow from the measurements and methods described above and will include the full range of results including active forest sequestration from improved forest management (IFM), afforestation (AF), reforestation (RF), agroforestry (AGR), working forests (WF) and avoided forest carbon (GHG) emissions linked to land conservation through biodiversity (B), land rights of Indigenous Peoples (IP) and protection of habitat for the Grauer’s gorilla (G).
CO2 Flux Network for 2+ Million Acre Democratic Republic of Congo Forest Carbon Sequestration Projects Proposed to Reverse Deforestation with Economic Benefits
Planetary Emissions Management Inc. and EmiAfrican will deploy a network of CO2 flux sensors across diverse landscapes of the Democratic Republic of Congo to support new tradable GHG products with the goals of reforestation, cultural preservation, and economic benefit.
PEM Finds Forest Carbon Value In the Heart of Africa
Planetary Emissions Management Inc. (PEM) will be participating in the Global African Investment Summit, London, December 1 & 2, seeking investor and forest landowner partnerships in the heart of Africa. PEM plans to apply its patented hardware and financial mechanisms to reforest African land and to protect some of the least disturbed forests on the planet. The PEM approach is based on direct measurement of forest carbon, eliminating estimation and pricing uncertainty for carbon products.
Please click on the icons below to see what each measurement signifies.
Please click on the icons below to see what each method signifies.
Biosphere Box Portfolios
Active Sequestration Box Products
Please click on the icons below to see what each box product signifies.
Avoided Emissions Box Products
Please click on the icons below to see what each box product signifies.
STRONG ROOTS CONGO
Strong Roots Congo is a grassroots conservation and sustainable development organization operating in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Enhancing carbon storage by reforestation, conserving land for Indigenous People (Pygmy) and Gorilla habitat, and providing trees for community forest growth, represent a mix of carbon strategies to be monitored by PαC.
Strong Roots Founder and Executive Director, Dominique Bikaba, will direct the project and serve as an intermediary between PαC and inhabitants, overseeing the implementation of the PαC project, and ensuring that all stakeholders are aware of what the PαC project entails.
The project area, covering ~ 3 million hectares of land, is located between the Kahuzi-Biega National Park (KBNP) and the Itombwe Nature Reserve creating a unique corridor and link between the these two protected areas.
The project components are described on the Strong Roots Congo website as follows (www.strongrootscongo.org):
Strong Roots is working to create a corridor of community forests, with the goal of connecting gorilla populations in Kahuzi-Biega and Itombwe Nature Reserve. This project is to build upon Strong Root’s current work empowering communities to use scientifically grounded conservation strategies alongside traditional knowledge and practices. The project aims to increase the population of Grauer’s gorillas through community conservation plans that ensure long-term protection. Strong Roots is using the lessons learned from our initial project in Bhuryini to scale up our work in the other 7 community forests that make up the corridor between Kahuzi-Biega and Itombwe.
We are excited about expanding our work throughout the corridor because legally designating these community forests would mean that a large portion of gorilla habitat outside of the two protected areas would be protected. This is a really unique moment to include communities in the larger conservation dialogue. For the first time, the 2014 Community Forest Law in the DRC makes it possible for communities interested in conservation to apply for land tenure. Community Forests qualify themselves for land tenure by establishing Conservation Committees and implementing a Conservation Plan. The Conservation Committees are charged with enforcing a Conservation Plan for the forest. Key areas are classified as off-limits and set aside for conservation and others remain open for resource use. These conservation committees will ensure that the larger community is included in the drafting of the conservation management plan. This quells the communities’ fears that they will lose control over their land and instead encourages buy-in from the communities to take ownership over conserving their forests.
Strong Roots works alongside these communities to provide the necessary training to design, implement, and monitor the conservation plan. As of now Strong Roots is the only organization working in this area and we hope that the success of the corridor project will encourage other stakeholders to consider community forests as strong allies in the fight for conservation making community conservation a reality.
To date we have planted almost a million trees around KBNP, reforesting more than 2,000 ha of land. We plant agro-forestry trees with fuelwood species to improve soil conditions, food security, and reduce pressure on the park. With the only increase in Grauer’s population occurring in this region of KBNP, our work proves that agro-forestry is good for people and conservation.
Further south near the Itombwe Nature Reserve, we are entering the second year of our agro-forestry project around the Burhinyi Community Forest. Here our goal is to combine reforestation and agro-forestry efforts with an education campaign to help community members understand the changes in their forest, what is driving these changes, and what they can do to reverse deforestation near their communities.
Along with our tree plantation in Burhinyi, we are also promoting natural regeneration within the Burhinyi Community Forest for forest and landscape restoration.
The project area is comprised of diverse regions including:
- Gorilla Habitat Connectivity
- Community Based Forest Management
- Indigenous Peoples (Pygmy) Land
- Pilot Project for Chimpanzee Home Range Restoration
The project will result in Biosphere Box verified sequestered carbon and biodiversity product portfolios as well as new data for the region of scientific interest.
Dominique Bikaba Interview
I Am Congo
GREAT APES SUMMIT: FIELD NOTES 3 --GLOBAL DRIVERS (Dominique Bikaba Presentation)
Kahuzi-Biega Environmental School - Congo Classrooms for a Brighter Future
Canadian Ape Alliance Kahuzi-Biega Trip 2016
Publications, Websites and Additional Information
National Geographic, Voices for Wildlife.
Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers, and Jacqueline M. Bishop. “Morphological and molecular evidence reveals recent hybridization between gorilla taxa.” Evolution 64.1 (2010): 271-290.
This website combines multiple databases covering the planet.
Maldonado, O., Aveling, C., Cox, D., Nixon, S., Nishuli, R., Merlo, D., Pintea, L. & Williamson, E.A. (2012). Grauer’s Gorillas and Chimpanzees in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (Kahuzi-Biega, Maiko, Tayna and Itombwe Landscape): Conservation Action Plan 2012–2022. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation & Tourism, Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature & the Jane Goodall Institute. 66pp.
High Resolution Carbon Distribution in Forests of Democratic Republic of Congo. A summary report of the Carbon Map and Model Project Performed at the University of California Los Angeles. 2017. The carbon map data represent the above ground carbon stocks.
Impending extinction crisis or the world’s primates: Why primates matter.
Burnett et al. The evolutionary origin and population history of the grauer gorilla. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology.159: S4-S18 (2016).
Plumptre, Andrew; Nixon, Stuart. New survey reveals dramatic decline of Grauer’s gorrilla. Oryx; Cambridge50.2 (Apr 2016): 203-203.
Plumptre, Andrew J., et al. “Catastrophic Decline of World’s Largest Primate: 80% Loss of Grauer’s Gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) Population Justifies Critically Endangered Status.” PloS one 11.10 (2016): e0162697.
Roy, Justin, et al. “Recent divergences and size decreases of eastern gorilla populations.” Biology letters 10.11 (2014): 20140811.
Shalukoma Ndukura, Chantal, and Marjolein Visser. “Diagnostic ethnobotanique partiel des espèces végétales utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle et par les gorilles de Grauer dans la zone montagneuse de Kahuzi-Biega, RD Congo.” (2016).
Plumptre, Andrew J., et al. “Status of Grauer’s gorilla and chimpanzees in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: historical and current distribution and abundance.” (2015).
Plumptre, A. J., et al. “Statut du gorille de Grauer.” (2015).
Mokoso, Jean de Dieu Mangambu, et al. “UTILISATION DES RESSOURCES FORESTIERES LIGNEUSES PAR LA POPULATION HABITANT LA ZONE SUBMONTAGNARDE DU PARC NATIONAL DE KAHUZI-BIEGA (RD CONGO)[USE OF WOODY FORESTRY RESOURCES BY THE POPULATION LIVING IN THE SUBMOUNTAIN AREA OF KAHUZI-BIEGA NATIONAL PARK (DR CONGO)].” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies 11.2 (2015): 508.
De Dieu, Mangambu Mokoso Jean, et al. “ETUDES ETHNOBOTANIQUE ET ETHNOLINGUISTIQUE DES RESSOURCES FORESTIERES LIGNEUSES UTILISEES PAR LA POPULATION DU COULOIR ECOLOGIQUE DU PARC NATIONAL DE KAHUZI-BIEGA (R D. CONGO).” European Scientific Journal 11.15 (2015).
Indigenous Peoples of the Project Area
Lescuyer, Guillaume, et al. “Study of the community forestry regime in the DRC.” (2015).
Nasong’o, Wanjala S. “Managing Ethnically Divided Societies.” The Roots of Ethnic Conflict in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan US, (2015). 171-182.
Cogill, B. “Contributions of indigenous vegetables and fruits to dietary diversity and quality.” XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): 1102. 2014.
Tegegn, Melakou. “The Impact of Dominant Environment Policies on Indigenous Peoples in Africa.” Indigenous People in Africa.: Contestations, Empowerment and Group Rights (2014): 45.
Ohenjo, Nyang’ori, et al. “Health of Indigenous people in Africa.” The Lancet 367.9526 (2006): 1937-1946.
WaSH: Water Sanitation and Hygiene
WaSH is the collective term for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Due to their interdependent nature, these three core issues are grouped together to represent a growing sector. While each a separate field of work, each is dependent on the presence of the other. For example, without toilets, water sources become contaminated; without clean water, basic hygiene practices are not possible.
PαC has partnered with Pure Home Water to focus on WaSH implementation in the project area based on needs voiced by inhabitants of the project areas.
Water focuses on the ability for children to access safe water, the quality of the water they can access and the journey they must take to collect it. PαC and PHW are exploring innovative ways to access water, and building climate resistant infrastructure. More on water
For sanitation, we work to ensure access and use of basic toilets and ways to separate human waste from contact with people. One important area of work for sanitation is to end the practice of “open defecation,” and facilitate community-led initiatives to build, maintain and use basic toilets.
Our work in hygiene is aimed at nurturing good hygiene practices, especially handwashing with soap. Although it sounds simple, this act is essential to prevent disease and the health of children. More on hygiene
All three areas in WaSH support and strengthen one another. If one is missing, the others cannot progress.
We welcome collaboration with project area initiatives involved in WaSH development.
Pricing for PαC verified reduction of GHG emissions is based on a combination of factors that include the nature of the project, the method of emission reduction, the fora and fauna, and the presence of Indigenous Peoples. The products and pricing will be available on our Buy Offsets page in the near future.
Climate Change: Past, Present and Future
Climate change over long term (e.g., Holocene ~10,000 years) and short term (e.g., historic period) periods have shaped the environment of the region up to the present period of rapid change due to anthropogenic perturbations. The consequences of anticipated climate change (e.g., surface warming and rainfall patterns) for the project area over the coming decades is open to interpretation based on results of model studies and evaluation of the current status of ecosystems and human presence in the project area.
A data summary and bibliography covering the Holocene and historic periods is in preparation.
A data summary and bibliography covering model results under changing climate is in preparation.
Pα seeks collaboration with a wide variety of individuals, public and private institutions and entities, foundations, NGO’s and governmental departments across disciplines including opportunities for cost-sharing, grants and other forms of project support.
Please refer to our online Collaboration form to contact us.
Archaeology Studies Relevant to the Project Area
Smith, Alexandre Livingstone, et al. “Forests and rivers: The archaeology of the north eastern Congo.” Quaternary International (2017).
Clist, Bernard-Olivier. Découvertes archéologiques en République démocratique du Congo. Vol. 1. Centre Culturel français de Kinshasa-Halle de la Gombe, 2005.
The Paris Agreement
DRC Intended National Determined Contribution (INDC)
The DRC INDC sets a conditional emissions reduction target of 17% by 2030 compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. The Party’s intended contribution is dependent on adequate support in the form of technology transfer, capacity development and financial resources. The INDC covers the energy, agriculture and forest sectors, noting that the industrial processes and waste sectors have minimal greenhouse gas (GHG) emission levels. The INDC focuses on the following gases: carbon dioxide (CO2); methane (CH4); and nitrous oxide (N2O). According to the INDC, approximately US$12.5 billion will be necessary to reach the country’s mitigation goal, which, if achieved, will avoid just over 70 million metric tons of CO2-equivalent (MtCO2e).
On adaptation, the country estimates its needs about US$9.1 billion, describing the impacts of climate change on the country and particular vulnerabilities. The INDC describes the short- and long-term goals for adaptation as: securing livelihoods and ways of life of both rural and urban communities; managing forest resources rationally; and protecting vulnerable coastal ecosystems. After describing gaps and barriers, the INDC summarizes the country’s needs for adaptation.